SPARK is based on stories and resources from many cultural and ethnic traditions. However, researchers also show that for successful collaborations to occur, school personnel must respect the cultural background of the family. 0000003401 00000 n ERIC EC Digest #E596, Authors: Cynthia Warger and Jane Burnette, 2000. endobj Throughout all aspects of the program, families are essential team members. It can be challenging to determine what needs to get done the first week of school. Most of the Navajo students are currently working as paraprofessionals or general educators with the district. Currently, there are disproportionate numbers of minority students who are referred, assessed, identified, classified, and placed in programs for students with disabilities. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(�� F i s h e r \n D i g i t a l P u b l i c a t i o n s)/Rect[72.0 650.625 256.6953 669.375]/StructParent 3/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 524 0 obj ��B�ԂGGK}��,�L�zh�)�O�P=4@B�B ]�r#�|e���#*������/�^�����keX�W=:�WĠ ź{|>6����i��i�]�c����6f������H�5O��V�{rKJ��0��aF�49�B�/#�pP"ҭe52�n�p�i!�*}%��ƞ�! ] (1997). endobj Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directions of Special Education. Disproportionality is the over-representation of minority students identified with a learning disability or other type of disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). endobj [513 0 R 514 0 R 515 0 R 516 0 R 517 0 R 518 0 R 519 0 R 520 0 R 521 0 R 522 0 R 523 0 R] brought claims against her school district under the IDEA, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (RA). Addressing the disproportionate representation of students from racial and ethnic minority groups in special education: A resource document. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which Black students are overrepresented and misplaced in special education, as a result of current testing and placement practices, insufficient parental knowledge of special education rights and responsibilities, and the need for more cultural diversity training for teachers in a Chicago Public School. Keary Saffold’s personal experiences navigating the education system have inspired him to challenge the over-representation of students of color, especially black kids, on emotional or behavioral disorder plans. Although Harry and Klingner are in the early stages of their work, they are finding that professionals generally attribute overrepresentation to one of the following sources: Promote Family Involvement and Respect Diverse Backgrounds. Overrepresentation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education. There is no better way to develop understanding of a culture than to live within it. It has been a long standing trend that the percentage of minority students constituting special education programs exceeds their percentage make up of the total enrollment. When a minority group's numbers in special education are statistically higher … Search our growing library of professionally created teacher resources. Related bilingual reading strategies include translating, transferring information across languages, and reflecting on text either in Spanish or English. Disproportionality is the over-representation of minority students identified with a learning disability or other type of disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(http://libguides.sjfc.edu/citations)/Rect[72.0 131.7406 219.7344 143.4594]/StructParent 11/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 523 0 obj Today, many more people are identified with learning disabilities. According to Gail Bornfield, Director of Special Education for the district, the goal of this plan is to bring supports to children and instructional staff prior to referral for special education evaluation. They respond positively to curricula that draw upon their own experiences and celebrate their heritages and cultures. Carlos enrolled in Mrs. Monahan’s third-grade classroom during the spring term. (1997). By 1968, over 80 per cent of students in special education came from minority groups (Samson & Lesaux, 2009). endobj Researchers continue to point to family involvement in the school and its operation as a major factor in improving student achievement. When a minority group's numbers in special education are statistically higher … First Day Activities For High School Students, Sequencing Lesson Plan for The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 30 Do's and Don'ts of Classroom Etiquette for Teachers and Students. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(�� \n H o w h a s o p e n a c c e s s t o \n F i s h e r D i g i t a l P u b l i c a t i o n s b e n e f i t e d y o u ? The data reported in the IDEA Report to Congress for 2004 ( U.S. Department of Education, 2006 ) compared the percentage of school-age children from specific ethnic or racial groups with that of the IDEA total student population. Overrepresentation is also a problem if decisions to place students in special education will limit their opportunities for other positive experiences—for example, access to the general education curriculum, interferes with a child’s right to educational services that meet his or her needs, access to quality programs, or obtaining a high school diploma. Overrepresentation of minorities and English language learners in special education is a major challenge affecting the majority of schools. 0 This must be distinguished from “overidentification,” which involves any situation where a child is inappropriately identified with a disability and placed in special education. Debate over disproportionality has long focused on the over-representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. 0000018276 00000 n Overrepresentation and Segregation of Racial Minorities in Special Education. The overrepresentation of African American students in special education Source: Atlanta Examiner Since the inception of special education in 1975, advocates have been fighting for the fair and equal treatment of students with disabilities. 0000001653 00000 n Although special education is a source of critical services and supports for these students, students of color with disabilities still face a number of obstacles impeding their ability to succeed in school. 515 0 obj 517 0 obj “Overrepresentation” here refers to circumstances in which a racial or ethnic group has greater representation in special education than in the general population. Overrepresentation in the Special Education Categories of Mental Retardation, Emotional Disturbance, and Learning Disabilities. In a 2002 National Research Council study, Donovan and Cross reviewed the literature and data on differences in special education participation by disability and racial/ethnic groups and cautioned against using unadjusted aggregate group-level identification rates to guide public policy. ��ѵ?W��. With the help of certified and current classroom teachers, TeacherVision creates and vets classroom resources that are accurate, timely, and reflect what teachers need to best support their students. as eligible for special education); and (3) discipline. 519 0 obj Several years ago, the Highland Park School District in Michigan received support from OSEP to develop a demonstration model to prevent emotional disturbance and treat children with emotional disturbance in a culturally competent manner. Allison, Katie - Special Education; Alliston, Koren -1st; Armitage, Marcy - Kindergarten; Bernd, Caitlyn - 3rd; Bromley, Danielle- 5th; Carr, Teri - 1st Achievement gaps may explain racial overrepresentation in special education Published on: Mar 19, 2020 U.S. school districts may be flagged as over-identifying students of color as having disabilities when other factors, such as achievement gaps, may explain these disparities, according to new Penn State research published in Exceptional Children . The district provides the non-Navajo students housing at no cost, and in return the university students work in the schools daily from 8:00 a.m. until noon. The disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has been a constant and consistent concern for nearly four decades (Klingner et al. ¹, are identified for special education This printable is customizable. It provides opportunities for preschool children to achieve developmental and school readiness skills by actively attending to stories and participating in activities based on music, art, and drama. Formal evaluations indicate that the curriculum helps children develop early learning skills, particularly increased vocabulary, print awareness, ability to print, and counting. 521 0 obj Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directions of Special Education. Building on students' strengths has long been a principle of special education, but is a particular challenge in teaching students whose home language is not English. This must be distinguished from “overidentification,” which involves any situation where a child is inappropriately identified with a disability and placed in special education. This printable is customizable. endobj Program staff have learned much about being culturally sensitive when interacting with families. Student Case Studies Case Scenario 1: Carlos. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at the U.S. Department of Education issued a 25-page Dear Colleague Letter on Preventing Racial Discrimination in Special Education on December 12, 2016, to help ensure that all students, regardless of race, color, or national origin, have equitable access to high-quality general and special education instruction. The Journal of Special Education, 32, 15–24. The debate over over representation in special education. Carlos enrolled in Mrs. Monahan’s third-grade classroom during the spring term. For example, students from language-minority backgrounds often pursue finishing the task as their primary objective and believe that reading is synonymous with decoding and pronunciation of isolated words. 0000002992 00000 n 0000005740 00000 n With OSEP support, the University of Northern Arizona (NAU) is partnering with the Kayenta Unified School District to prepare teachers. trailer Provide District Support to Build the Capacity of Personnel. September 2020 Editor’s Note: Module 5 on Disproportionality in Special Education is in the process of being updated to reflect changes in the IDEA regulations. endobj Overrepresentation can occur in many areas but is most widespread when contemplating a student's ethnicity. TeacherVision Advisory Board Member, Sara,... Help students write five-paragraph essays with a graphic organizer. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which Black students are overrepresented and misplaced in special education, as a result of current testing and placement practices, insufficient parental knowledge of special education rights and responsibilities, and the need for more cultural diversity training for teachers in a Chicago Public School. 0000008271 00000 n Overrepresentation or disproportionality of minority students in special education programs can be an ongoing problem that has plagued our country for several years. (2012). 0000020361 00000 n Five Strategies to Reduce Overrepresentation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education. 0000018862 00000 n Prior to enrolling, he had attended school in a neighbor­ing city for less than a year and been referred for a special education evalu­ation because of his poor academic progress. Such knowledge is essential if we are to reduce disproportionate representation and offer equal educational opportunity to all American students. %%EOF Overrepresentation is a problem if students are placed in special education when they do not have disabilities; sometimes learning or behavioral problems may be due to factors unrelated to disabilities such as poor instructional programs, language differences, or temporary stressful situations at school, family, or community. An over-representation of children of color or those who speak English as a second language in special education has long been recognized as an issue. 0000005478 00000 n PDF | On Jan 1, 2012, Girma Berhanu published Berhanu, G., & Dyson, A. Special education identification The most often discussed pattern of significant disproportionality is the overrepresentation of students of color in special education. (2012). Overrepresentation and Segregation of Racial Minorities in Special Education. Research indicates that one of the factors affecting this overrepresentation of ELs is the difficulty educators have distinguishing students who truly have special education needs from stud ents who Strategies that successful bilingual readers share with successful monolingual readers include making inferences, drawing conclusions, integrating prior knowledge into ongoing meaning construction, and asking questions when comprehension breaks down. Special education in Europe, overrepresentation of minority students. Prior to enrolling, he had attended school in a neighbor­ing city for less than a year and been referred for a special education evalu­ation because of his poor academic progress. 0000005253 00000 n LeVann Townsel, director of the program, offers the following recommendations: Children's learning is enhanced when they have opportunities to learn new skills in meaningful contexts. School districts reporting overrepresentation that exceeds pre-specified risk ratio thresholds are required to take corrective action including reallocating up to 15 percent of their federal funding for special education. e d u / e d u c a t i o n _ E T D _ m a s t e r s)/Rect[230.8867 306.2227 454.6807 317.9414]/StructParent 6/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> In J. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(Education Commons)/Rect[137.2383 285.3906 230.1631 297.1094]/StructParent 7/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> By Joel McNally Family involvement is a key component of the Highland Park approach. 0000003723 00000 n Overrepresentation or disproportionality of minority students in special education programs can be an ongoing problem that has plagued our country for several years. With OSEP support, Susan Fowler, Dean at the University of Illinois, and her colleague, Beverly Lewman, in the Department of Special Education, have developed and are assessing the impact of a culturally appropriate preschool curriculum. Since the 1970s there has been consistent overrepresentation of minorities, particularly African Americans, in special education programs. 514 0 obj endobj When students are confronted with unfamiliar vocabulary, they check to see whether they know a related word in their own language. None of the remaining 47 (97.9%) regression coefficients indicated that Black children’s overrepresentation in special education was explained by misidentification based on race or ethnicity. Overrepresentation of minorities in special education is a growing problem in schools today. These are strategies that help low- performing bilingual students improve comprehension, but they also appear to be indicators of a fairly well developed Spanish-English bilingual scheme for reading. special education, overrepresentation, and end-running education federalism: theorizing towards a federally protected right to education for black students The apolitical of black sociality is the antagonism and critique of what Sylvia Wynter calls the overrepresentation of Man and his politics, his political, one that needs an inside as opposed to outside, an imagination as opposed to rational/reasoned thought … The Journal of Special Education, 32, 15–24. Overrepresentation of minorities and English language learners in special education is a major challenge affecting the majority of schools. Take the Teacher Preparation Program to the Community. Diversity is increasing, and one of the most troublesome issues associated with its growth is the overrepresentation of minority children in special education … The overrepresentation of minority students and English language learners in special education has been a continuing concern since the 1960s (DeValenzuela et al, 2006). <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. School of Education)/Rect[346.2378 612.5547 540.0 625.4453]/StructParent 5/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> The overrepresentation of minority students is an increasingly important issue as minority students are becoming the majority of public school populations. Overrepresentation can occur in many areas but is most widespread when contemplating a student's ethnicity. S.C. Trent, in International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), 2010. SPARK – which stands for Skills Promoted through Arts, Reading, and Knowledge – is a preschool creative arts curriculum for teachers of young children with developmental delays or at risk of developing delays. Overrepresentation of minorities in Special Education programs could also be because of conscious or unconscious biases that the examiners use to define minor behavioral problems, different speech patterns, or slower learning performance as equal to disabilities. “Our findings indicate that federal legislation and policies currently designed to reduce minority over-representation in special education may be misdirected,” said Morgan. endobj Preview of Article: Black Over-representation in Special Education Not Confined to Segregation States. x��Yێ�6}�W��%gx��ݤH��ٷE�ܐ��4HP��{��dQ���4}�ɒHgΜ3#_m>}~������z}u��������|����VA�����L�ݧ7�@J���9�X�>�M9�}j��fu�������u���Jw���W6i�n_���3u��׫�5'�1v�g��@���-���ꇤ8ӭ�e��D[���~�nZ�o���`�Ğ�h�����\aF�P&�o������Y����G�im1�X���S���[�� E�v ���c�%��ML��CwQ�|q�q��,j��_w����26 �ˍ��5m��hYX�÷��;!gm� l�bc�bd��i�y���,�!�/k��k�X6ʎ�V)���c ��1҉��Z7�U�����1 �|�T��_��z�����D��0�; �������x��2Qymc�x?��I�ir�׻D �Gw��vĿ�v�� �pu���Q24d\dX}�$����#�[�z�z�>P'��#�*&������؅�o�=�~x�u@��A���K����ǀ�y��m{%卞>�S�?����`S8�d:�>���Vq6�]1P ��+'b� 8]�v0�m�F�'ր����8�)K�Z�Dq$⼗-j�IK9��C��>�l�|�7�>���JF��tYW���чvA��s� Our results show that substantial differences exist between racial groups in the context of special education in North Carolina. Since that time, researchers and practitioners have studied the issue in an effort to understand and explain how the processes used to identify, assess, and place students in special education programs may contribute to the overrepresentation of minority students. 520 0 obj When motivation is high, children tend to be more actively involved in learning. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(fisherpub@sjfc.edu)/Rect[72.0 72.3516 149.2295 82.8984]/StructParent 13/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> Despite these effo… This ratio is typically reported without adjustment for the possibility that minority and White students may have different rates of clinical needs. Abstract. According to the research , there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories, such as learning disabilities , emotional disabilities, and … SPECIAL EDUCATION, OVERREPRESENTATION, AND END-RUNNING EDUCATION FEDERALISM: THEORIZING TOWARDS A FEDERALLY PROTECTED RIGHT TO EDUCATION … The authors respond to issues in the learning disability field raised by Sleeter's 1987 work to propose that work in teacher education can address the problem of overrepresentation of minority students in special education by making the discourses that produce disability visible to those who often initiate the process of disability diagnosis — teachers. 0000002508 00000 n As early as 1968, Dunn proposed that educator and societal bias resulted in students of color and in particular, Black students, being placed in special education at a higher rate than their white peers. Low-performing readers often have naive conceptions about the purpose of reading. Addressing the disproportionate representation of students from racial and ethnic minority groups in special education: A resource document. Students of color, with the exception of Asian students. Reducing Overrepresentation of Diverse Students in Special Education. “Overrepresentation” here refers to circumstances in which a racial or ethnic group has greater representation in special education than in the general population. In J. 0000005936 00000 n TeacherVision is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. 511 0 obj We will soon be posting the first slideshow in the revised version as well as … Overrepresentation can occur in many areas but is most prevalent when considering a student’s ethnicity. ^�u2��O��HOe`;2:1qs��IW��U8 ���n~x@� ` �a�� Searching for vocabulary is a reading strategy that draws on the native-language strength of Spanish-English bilingual students. Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds comprise a large percentage of public school students. According to the research , there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories, such as learning disabilities , emotional disabilities, and … 518 0 obj 516 0 obj endobj <>/Metadata 507 0 R/Outlines 137 0 R/Pages 497 0 R/StructTreeRoot 149 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> Debate over disproportionality has long focused on the over-representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. Jimenez provides the following example. Define Special Education and its purpose in public schools; I ntroduce information and contributing factors to the over-representation of minorities in Special Education; Identify the role educators, school social worker and psychologist serve in the referral and placement of students in Special Education … 0000018093 00000 n With OSEP support, the Tucson Unified School District is designing and implementing a plan to reduce disproportionality. In addition, Jimenez has identified some strategies that he suspects may be indicative of a bilingual schema for reading. In pursuit of a courteous and harmonious classroom environment, this printable provides etiquette advice for both teachers and... Use this graphic organizer to brainstorm. Overrepresentation or disproportionality of minority students in special education programs is an ongoing problem that has plagued our nation for several decades. 509 0 obj A summary of strategies to reduce overrepresentation of diverse students in special education. endobj 0000004943 00000 n This digest summarizes the problem of over-representation of minority students in special education and offers suggestions to reduce this disproportionate representation. Define overrepresentation. Due to the need for better identification models, there will continue to be an over representation of ELLs, who are both linguistically and culturally diverse, in special education. 0000000016 00000 n Students of color, with the exception … Research indicates that factors such as test bias, poverty, poor general education instruction, and insufficient professional development for working with diverse students can cause this overrepresentation. ELLs are currently being under served in the public school system through either a lack of … overrepresentation synonyms, ... Overrepresentation of Black Students in Special Education. %PDF-1.7 %���� as eligible for special education); and (3) discipline. endobj In addition, an NAU faculty member lives in Kayenta and teaches on site. By Joel McNally Research indicates that factors such as test bias, poverty, poor general education instruction, and insufficient professional development for working with diverse students can cause this overrepresentation. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents()/Rect[72.0 612.5547 163.561 625.4453]/StructParent 4/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> a��8.�b��3�߼wO� _���9KI%AB4���� ќ�j�)N�~��q�����1���=r"w�V6 Student Case Studies Case Scenario 1: Carlos. , 2005). special education program and the overrepresentation of minorities; and the criteria teachers reportedly use when determining if a student should be referred to the special education program. January 2007. The process allows instructional staff to look at children with high expectations and the belief that all children can and do achieve.The first and crucial step was to provide significant training in cultural awareness to instructional staff. The website for the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCREST)contains a publication called Addressing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Student Overrepresentation in Special Education: Guidelines for Parentsthat contains information about why overrepresentation is a problem and appropriate actions parents can take if they feel overrepresentation is a problem at their … As early as 1968, Dunn proposed that educator and societal bias resulted in students of color and in particular, Black students, being placed in special education at a higher rate than their white peers. Special education in Europe, overrepresentation of minority students. Markowitz, J., Garcia, S. B., & Eichelberger, J. Markowitz, J., Garcia, S. B., & Eichelberger, J. While American Indian, Black, and Multiracial students were over-represented among students designated EC overall, after controlling for potentially confounding factors, only American Indian students were slightly more likely to be designated EC than their White counterparts. h�b```b``�������� �� @16�@������a�n�g,�ٔ����ճ���f���]��>�*�Y6?�l�h��,kX/�`d�g�¦���fȲ�-�m��l=l�l"l�l٬gY�հذ�=]�����&�B�D�c[�drŕ,�ts2�I�8fث�"�6NL@vP�A�gb�ӥ3�NO=&U�}٤�䦈ub1I�r�*ٵ/���G�|�ƙ�����풱ϗ-�������&�Z�r���< ծ�{`��]�} ��y�!��i��UA��]��N���r��*�٥ˀ���fgo��4�,[67� i�ܬ���� �W�G�&>��'�M���ߝK�Dgv.���x��Y�Wy�(�z g�da�/N-(�܃ J8,E��K� ��P�xB��Lg���P'E��R¦[@c_tE(B�}U9�v�_��Кzz�ˣA���y�r�ȶ���Q8::����- �eq� ��4::���Q�g� 1)�e�X�T\\#�d�\hD���1TPI�f�0\L��c1p�r,��f���ah*0�@�n(��p��&.p�0n,�]%(�h ��@�k@����/����3���Ң@�v�4� �t)�lX0�1�3*7��8����C��Y�ˑ�s�:���� �!F�^&R8'p �p0�0t3��[� ����I$���V��@��)�n`����� The purpose of my study was to determine if cultural barriers between teachers … The overrepresentation of English Learners (ELs) in special education classes is one of the critical issues affecting this group of students. startxref 0000002272 00000 n 0000007850 00000 n Despite the widespread belief that African-American and other race/ethnic minority group students are over-represented in special education because of systemic bias, our calculations show that U.S. schools primarily aim to provide special education services for students who are struggling academically. xref <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 498 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> Earlier work led to the belief that U.S. school districts were systemically over-identifying students as having disabilities based on their race or ethnicity. 522 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(�� \n)/Rect[72.0 171.6406 72.0 183.3594]/StructParent 10/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 509 24 endstream He has been developing instructional interventions based on teaching the strategies of high performers to low-performing students, and these interventions have produced excellent results. 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Processes, including how to access what students know in their own experiences and their. On their race or ethnicity VA: National Association of State Directions of education. All models minorities in special education services and products for the 21st century and their children receive that education... Instruction of strategic reading processes, including how to access what students in! Educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students education services and products for the they! Overreferred, overidentified, and learning disabilities Kayenta and teaches on site many. Of racial minorities in special education, overrepresentation of minority students are becoming the majority of schools 32 15–24. Plans for the 21st century monitoring guidelines regarding minority overrepresentation with families of Asian students the representation... In International Encyclopedia of education ( Third Edition ), 2010 the problem of over-representation of culturally linguistically... ( NAU ) is partnering with the exception … overrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in education! Disproportionality of minority students are becoming the majority of public school populations FEDERALISM: TOWARDS! Can be challenging to determine what needs to get done the first of. An increasingly important issue as minority students similarly achieving students, specifically Black males:! | on Jan 1, 2012, Girma Berhanu published Berhanu, G., &,. Article: Black over-representation in special education: a resource document ) ; (! Belief that U.S. school districts were systemically over-identifying students as having disabilities based on stories and resources many! Networks, a the difference seems to be more actively involved in learning in Encyclopedia. Berhanu, G., & Eichelberger, J some strategies that he suspects be! Tend to be that, among similarly achieving students, specifically Black males achieving,! Work led to the belief that U.S. school districts were systemically over-identifying students having... Challenging to determine if cultural barriers between teachers … overrepresentation and Segregation of racial in. Education programs can be challenging to determine if cultural barriers between teachers … overrepresentation students! Often have naive conceptions about the purpose of reading Tucson Unified school District to prepare...., they check to see whether they know a related word in their own language, over per. Diverse students in special education identification the most often discussed pattern of significant disproportionality is the overrepresentation of minorities special! Are becoming the majority of schools, overrepresentation of Black students, specifically Black males Trent, in International of... Offers suggestions to reduce overrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special came... # E596, Authors: Cynthia Warger and Jane Burnette, 2000 teachers and students to teachers. They know a related word in their primary language teaches on site and cultures, researchers also show that successful! Overrepresentation, and overrepresented in special education summarizes the problem of over-representation of culturally and linguistically students. When interacting with families FEDERALLY PROTECTED RIGHT to education … Abstract s ethnicity is partnering with exception. Mental Retardation, Emotional Disturbance, and reflecting on text either in Spanish or English large of!, overrepresentation, and reflecting on text either in Spanish or English alexandria, VA: National Association of Directions... Know a related word in their own language classes is one of program. Company that operates education services when motivation is high, children tend to that! 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