Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. By retting the fibres they are softened and can be decorticated and extracted by beating 16, which is usually done by hand. The crops grow quickly and around 100 days after harvesting the soil is left in better condition as it has been replenished with nutrients and nitrogen. However, herbicide and fertilizer applications are common in some places to encourage edible shoot growth. It is one of the most affordable of all the natural fibres and is second only to cotton in quantity produced and variety of uses. However, within the European Union and Canada a licence has to be issued for its cultivation. It requires far less use of pesticides and artificial fertilizers. This is the most important bamboo type in China, where it covers about 3 million hectares. The process involving the recognition of phage to bacterium is called landing. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. Water retting gives a more uniform quality product. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. In this process, indigenous bacteria and notably fungi present on the plant stems degrade pectin between the fibres and the stem surface The same manufacturing process is used to produce linen fabric from flax or hemp. The principal consumers of Ramie fibre are Japan, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. 3d), and intense degradation was evident in the … In stream retting the plants are immersed in slow moving streams for a longer time and the quality of the product is high. Linen absorbs dye well, especially natural dyes and does not require chemical treatments. Retting time must be carefully judged;… This restriction has hampered its use as a modern commercially viable raw material. Sativa which is commonly known as Industrial hemp and is the term given to the variety grown for fibre and other non drug related purposes. Chemical retting involves immersion of the dried plants in a tank with a solution of chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, high pH agents, pectinolytic enzymes or mineral acids. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. In this study, molecular, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy studies were employed to understand the field retting mechanisms involving microbiota, including microbial community dynamics, hemp colonization, functions/interactions, and hemp biodegradation. It is second only to soy in its nutritional value, is highly digestible and an effective unsaturated oil. It can be recycled several times within its lifecycle and also has important biodegradable properties. The fibres are naturally white and do not need to undergo any bleaching processes for either paper or cloth uses. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium. It flourishes best in warm humid temperatures but is also able to withstand droughts and can achieve a life span of twenty years. Germany and Brazil also import raw jute from Bangladesh. Search. Flax is the only commercial cellulosic textile plant indigenous to Western Europe; it is also the strongest of all the vegetable fibres being two to three times stronger than cotton. Hemp is the generic name for the entire cannabis family of plants. Sustainable land use practices that provide both economic and environmental advantages and are of global importance as the world’s six billion people compete for water, food, fibre and shelter, the high yield per hectare of bamboo becomes a very significant advantage. Nettles have a long history as a textile fibre substitute for linen, dating back to medieval times, and have also been used commercially more recently during both World Wars, when other crops such as cotton were scarce. Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Chemical retting was done by boiling stalks in 7% sodium hydroxide for I hour, after which they were washed, neutralized in 0.2% acetic acid. Since the 1930s the focus has been the production of strains that offer a poor sources of drug material. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. These include linseed oil for linoleum, soap, fuel and cattle feed. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. It is native to the tropical and sub tropical monsoon regions of the world, and flourishes during the rainy season. This makes bamboo more able to handle harsh weather conditions such as drought, flood and high temperatures. Yields of bamboo of up to 60 tonnes per hectare greatly exceed the yield of 20 tonnes for most trees and only 1-2 tonnes per hectare for cotton with a one-time planting for bamboo and little care and maintenance needed. The plants are long and slender with fibres that are between one and five metres long running the full length of the plant. Nettles can grow on the most inhospitable land that has been subjected to chemical abuse, but their cultivation uses a very small amount, if any at all of pesticide. In Canada the export of hemp seeds has increased by over 300% over the last two years. The United States is the only industrialised country where it is still illegal to grow hemp, although some states have granted licences for the cultivation of industrial hemp. For more information on linen, go into the, Ramie is a flowering plant of the nettle family, Other important producers of hemp include: China, North Korea, Romania and Hungary. Ramie is also an important fabric both woven and knitted for the North American market where it is seen as a cheaper ‘linen look’ alternative. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. Retting permits separation of the fibre bundles, and individual fibres, from the vegetal skin and the woody core cells. Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Furthermore, it was reported that the conditions for bacterial growth and activities were found to be more consistent in water retting, which produced the uniform colonization of bacteria and resulted in better fiber quality (Nair et al. The root system of bamboo creates an effective watershed, stitching the soil together along fragile river banks, deforested areas, and in places prone to mudslides. Coir (/ ˈ k ɔɪər /), or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the outer husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses. The released fibre bundles, called strands, are frequently used without additional separation, in which case they are called fibres. Tossa jute is softer and silkier and more lustrous than white jute. Dew 2. Required fields are marked *. Bamboo is a very-fast growing woody grass that can produce shoots of up to a metre per day. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. Water rettinginvolves leaving the stalks in tanks or ponds of water (or in a running river), and are acted upon by bacteria, rotting the stalk which separates the fibres from the woody core. In Bangladesh it was called the “golden fibre,” as trade in jute brought the largest amount of foreign currency into the country. Jute or Hessian is one of the cheapest natural fibres to produce, and is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of production, global consumption, and availability. The best fibre quality was obtained after 3-4 days of retting with the addition of the bacterial inoculum. As a textile fibre it blends well with both other natural fibres and synthetics and when dyed it retains colour well being both colour and light fast. It also greatly reduces rain run-off. This high growth rate and the ability to flourish in such diverse climates gives the bamboo plant the potential to be a highly sustainable and versatile resource. Today, this project has has grown to over 80 hectares. This versatile fibre is also used for paper, film, composite materials and geotextiles in environmental engineering. The nutrients from the decaying stalks means that this method is highly polluting to the water source. When you ret flax, mould, warmth and humidity dissolve this ‘glue’ and loosen the fibre. Hemp is an ecologically and sustainably important plant, running in tandem with ‘green future’ objectives and is often referred to as the World’s most useful plant. washed, air dried, and combed. ting. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. It is often blended with cotton and wool. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. However, it wrinkles easily and should not be creased excessively to avoid wear and breakage of the fibers. Ramie has very similar properties to linen; it is a natural white in color, has an excellent lustre and is unusually resistant to bacteria and moulds. The emerging uses for it today span engineering applications, insulation paper and clothing grade cloth as well as providing vegetable oil from the seeds. It is ready for harvesting in 4 years and does not require re-planting as the extensive root base sprouts new shoots readily, it therefore has the potential to be a highly sustainable raw material. It is used in areas of internal body parts where its strength and lightness of weight make the vehicles more fuel-efficient and thus a better ecological proposition. Water-retting traditionally depends upon anaerobic bacteria that live in lakes, rivers, ponds, and vats to produce pectinases and other enzymes to ret flax. Indica is the variety grown for both recreational and medical drug use. Bamboo is also extremely efficient at minimising CO2 and generates up to 35% more oxygen than equivalent stands of trees. 2013). Linen refers to yarn and fabric made from the fibres of the stem of the flax plant. Natural retting of coconut husks by native bacteria results in the release of toxic phenols delaying the extraction of the fibre and lowering the pH of the environmental waters detrimental to aquatic life. It is a species of hibiscus with visual similarities to Jute. Bamboo fabric made from this process is sometimes called bamboo linen. Two methods employed for retting flax at commercial levels using pectinolytic microorganisms are water- and dew-retting. In addition it controls topsoil erosion and produces great amounts of oxygen. A new process has recently been developed that makes it possible to use the same machinery as cotton when weaving hemp. The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre. The soft tissues are removed from the fibre plant with the help of bacteria. The longest and more desirable flax fibres are from plants that have been hand harvested; this is the process of pulling the complete plant with root (fibres go all the way to the root) from the ground. India produces a variety of hemp known as. Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as, It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. Nettles have the potential to be a viable alternative to cotton, and other textiles that are harmful to the environment. and claims to use a more natural way of processing the bamboo into fibre. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as tow or the more desirable long line fibre. Kenaf has a long history of cultivation dating back over 4000 years in parts of Africa it was also cultivated in India and Thailand. White or pure white is only achieved through various bleaching processes. For field retting a classification of the microbial evolution (by gene sequencing) and enzyme profiles were conducted. The production of hemp in Western countries is growing steadily to meet the growing interest in sustainable textiles. The fibres are produced from the bark or stalks of the plant which is harvested on average two to three times each year, although under some growing conditions may be harvested up to six times in a year. Your email address will not be published. The most important region for jute is Bengal in the Ganges delta where it has an important place in local culture. These closely related bast fibers are derived from Hibiscus cannabinus and H. sabdariffa (mallow family, Malvaceae), respectively. Bast fibres, like linen and flax are obtained from the phloem, or inner bark (or skin) of a plant. Chemical retting is more expensive and does not produce the superior quality fibre obtained from the biological retting process. With crop rotation it is not necessary to use chemical fertilisers and pesticides when growing flax. Conversely Cannabis sativa L. subsp. The two principal plant varieties are: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. It is mostly used in the furnishing textile industries, however due to its durability and advantageous properties it is also now being developed for high performance technical textiles. In the mechanical process the woody stems are crushed and natural enzymes break down the stems so that the fibres can be combed out and spun, using similar methods to the production of flax. 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